SES Research FAQs

Singlewall nanotube – SWNT
Multiwall nanotube – MWNT

When the material is made (as-produce) the nanotubes comes straight out of the reactor with the approximate concentration of 95% MWNT ( 90% in the case of SWNT) nanotube vs. non-nanotube material. These nanotubes are then processed and purified. This step yields an increase in purity of the tubes which are sold as “Purified Open Material”. This steps uses a Heat and Acid Wash process, which removes the non-nanotubic material. (Non-Nanotubic material is usually comprised of amorphous and graphitic carbon, and metal catalyst. Also process may shortens the nanotubes by “end eroding” during the acid wash which removes the ends caps of the nanotubes.
A summary of the steps follows:

  • Heat nanotubes in air to 300C to expose the carbon surface and oxidize the metal catalyst.
  • Sonicate and wash in nitric acid and/or HCL  to remove the metal catalyst, amorphous carbons and to open the ends of the nanotubes.
  • Clean with solvent and hot air dry.  (acetone, ether and etc.)

To determine the purity of the nanotubes TGA gives a quantitative analysis of the level of concentration of up to 98% nanotubes and if necessary we can reprocess the tubes to achieve the proper purity level and metal content < .2%. by weight* We also use SEM and TEM to view and evaluated the material. Typically, SEM is used to evaluate the raw, as produce, Nanotubes and TEM is used to evaluate the purified nanotubes. Not every batch is tested due to cost and test equipment availability, but tests are ordered when processes are changed. *(Care must be taken when weighting the ash/metal content of the Nanotube in the TGA, the metal catalyst Nickel tends to form NiO2 in the TGA. This can offset the actual weight of the metal through the addition of the oxygen.)

We sell c60 in a purified powdered state and this form of it has not been tested on humans. C60 olive oil has not been tested on humans.

There’s an article available (The prolongation of the lifespan of rats by repeated oral administration of [60]fullerene – ScienceDirect) that suggest Carbon 60 (c60 or buckyballs) dissolved in extra virgin olive oil works for anti-aging.The reports indicate it was successfully tested on rats and the rats that recieved the treatment lived twice as long as rats without the treatment.

 

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET 
Product Name:
FULLERENE EXTRACT
Other known names:
(Fullerene mixture, Fullurite, C60/C70)
TOXICITY HAZARDS
No toxicity data  available
HEALTH  HAZARD  DATA
Acute Effects:
May be harmful by inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption, causes eye irritation. Material is irritating to mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. To the best of our knowledge, the chemical, physical and toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated.
First Aid:
In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with water for at least 15 minutes.  In case of contact, immediately wash skin with soap and water.  If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing give artificial respiration.
PHYSICAL DATA
Appearance:
Dark gray/black powder
FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA
Extinguishing Media:
Water spray, carbon dioxide, dry chemical power, foam.
Unusual fire and explosion hazard:
Emits toxic fumes under fire conditions.
REACTIVITY DATA
Incompatibilities:
Strong oxidizing agents
Hazardous combustion or decomposition products:
Toxic fumes of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide
Decompose over time if expose to air.
SPILL OR LEAK PROCEDURES
Steps to be taken if material is released or spilled:
Wear respirator: niosh/osha approved for dust.
Chemical safety goggles: side shield safety glasses
Protect hands with suitable gloves: impervious
Sweep up, hold for waste disposal.
Waste Disposal Method:
Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator.  Observe all federal, state and local environmental regulations.
STORAGE
Store in a cool dry place, out of direct light, keep container sealed.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET 

Product Name:
CARBON NANOTUBE 
Other known names:
(multiwall nanotubes, singlewall nanotubes, purified or non-purified, mwnt, swnt)
TOXICITY HAZARDS
No toxicity data  available
HEALTH  HAZARD  DATA
Acute Effects:
May be harmful by inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption, causes eye irritation.  Material is irritating to mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. To the best of our knowledge, the chemical, physical and toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated.
Rating:
Health:
2
Flammability:
0
PHYSICAL DATA
Appearance:
Dark gray powder
FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA
Extinguishing Media:
Water spray, carbon dioxide, dry chemical power, foam.
Unusual fire and explosion hazard:
Emits toxic fumes under fire conditions.
REACTIVITY DATA
Incompatibilities:
Strong oxidizing agents
Hazardous combustion or decomposition products:
Toxic fumes of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide
SPILL OR LEAK PROCEDURES
Steps to be taken if material is released or spilled:
Wear respirator: niosh/osha approved for dust.
Chemical safety goggles: side shield safety glasses
Protect hands with suitable gloves: impervious
Sweep up, hold for waste disposal.
Waste Disposal Method:
Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator.  Observe all federal, state and local environmental regulations.
STORAGE
Store in a cool dry place, out of direct light, keep container sealed.
DISCLAIMER
For R&D use only.  Not for drug, household or other uses.The above information is believed to correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide.  SES research shall not be held liable for any damage resulting form handling or form contact with the above product.

Results show that approximately 9-10 mg can at maximum be dissolved per mL of toluene at room temperature, when stirring the solution for a long time (several days). After that time, the dark red-brown solution is (almost) clear/transparent, meaning that the material has fully dissolved. We can, however, not exclude that some of it is still present as un-dissolved nanoparticles, which are not seen by the eye, nor can be easily filtered out.
Sonification may lead to a higher solubility, however, may also lead to more of these nanoparticles.

When heated, e.g. at 50 degrees C, more PCBM can be dissolved in toluene. Upon cooling to room temperature, the PCBM does not precipitate directly, but stays in solution for at least several hours. Thus, a supersaturated solution can be obtained.

PCBM is better soluble in so-called good fullerene solvents, such as chlorobenzene and ODCB. In the latter solvent, 50 mg/mL solutions can be made without too much trouble.